Moscow’s intellectual heritage and the legacy of massive soviet investment in education put it ahead of Barcelona and Copenhagen, ranked second and third respectively by the judges for the strength of their universities.

Other cities with high levels of education include Oslo in Norway, Porto in Portugal, Girona in Spain, Edinburgh in the UK, Madrid in Spain, Livorno in Italy, Jyväskylä in Finland and Copenhagen in Denmark. More than 30% of the people in these cities hold university degrees.